LaTosha Brown” (2010), kris krüg

“Welcome to the new Georgia…It is more diverse. It’s more inclusive. It readily embraces the future.”—Senator Raphael Warnock

On January 15, 2021, Georgia certified the results of the US Senate runoff election between Democratic challenger Raphael Warnock and Sen. Kelly Loeffler and Democratic challenger Jon Ossoff and Sen. David Perdue. Both Warnock and Ossoff defeated the Republican incumbents.

Warnock became the first Black senator from Georgia and the first Black Democratic senator from a former Confederate state ever. The results of Georgia’s runoff, which gave Democrats a Senate majority, and of November’s presidential election, which helped Joe Biden win the presidency, embody the call of former Representative John Lewis from Georgia’s 5th Congressional District to get into “good trouble” by exercising the right to vote, “the most powerful nonviolent tool” we have in a democracy.

While some credit the Democrats’ win to Donald Trump and his bullying of Georgia state Republicans like governor Brian Kemp and secretary of state Brad Raffensperger, the real muscle behind the wins of Warnock and Ossoff was the coalition of Black grassroots organizations, nonprofit advocacy groups, foundations, churches, volunteers, and canvassers that together made “good trouble” across the state of Georgia. In the words of former gubernatorial candidate Stacey Abrams and founder of both New Georgia Project and Fair Fight Action, “Across our state, we roared.”

Kenya Evelyn reports in the Guardian that Abrams; LaTosha Brown, founder of Black Voters Matter; and countless others led campaigns that “reached hundreds of thousands of Georgia residents since November’s general election [as] more than 100,000 Georgians who didn’t vote in the presidential requested a mail-in ballot for the runoff.” Raffensperger stated that a record 4.6 million people voted in the runoff election, more than in both the 2016 presidential and the 2018 gubernatorial elections.

Ironically, the runoff election that generated historic Black voter turnout this year was originally created in the 1960s to suppress Black voter turnout. In 1962, the US Supreme Court struck down an electoral system in Georgia that favored rural white voters and, as Jerusalem Demsas writes in Vox, then-state representative Denmark Groover introduced a proposal in 1963 that would “apply majority-vote, runoff election rules to all local, state, and federal offices” in order to dilute the power of Black voters.

Groover’s proposed system would “stop Black Georgians from voting as a ‘bloc’—that is, overwhelmingly for one candidate or party…. In a plurality system, if Black voters were able to keep a coalition behind one candidate, they wouldn’t need the support of many white voters for their preferred candidate to win elections.” In case there was any doubt as to the motivation behind Georgia’s runoff law, Groover later confirmed that he “used the phrase ‘bloc voting’ as a racist euphemism for Negro voting.”

So how exactly did a historically racist electoral system in 2020 help to motivate the very voters that system originally sought to suppress? Well, while the runoff system was designed to block Black representation, fundamental to winning a runoff election is voter turnout. And that happens to be what many Black grassroots voter advocacy groups in Georgia do best.

No doubt a lot of money was thrown into the runoff election in Georgia. But despite political donations to the Georgia Democratic and Republican senate campaigns exceeding $800 million and including some Wall Street Republican billionaires, much of that money was spent on television advertising, which had relatively little impact.

What was decisive was voter mobilization. And the heart of the grassroots mobilization was in small budget, local, nonprofit groups like Step Up Savannah, which according to the Chronicle of Philanthropy “led phone-bank operations in rural Liberty County, a neighboring jurisdiction outside of Step Up’s normal reach.”

Instead of utilizing Facebook and other forms of social media and commercial advertising, organizers relied on more traditional methods like knocking on doors and